TECHXPLORE | With the imminent threat of a climate crisis hanging over our heads, it has become crucial to develop efficient alternatives to fossil fuels. One option is to use clean sources of fuels called biofuels, which can be produced from natural sources such as biomass. The plant-based polymer cellulose is the most abundant form of biomass globally and can be converted into raw materials such as glucose and xylose for the production of bioethanol (a type of biofuel). But this process is challenging owing to the molecule's rigid and dense structure, which makes it insoluble in water. Chemists and biotechnologists globally have used conventional techniques like microwave radiation, hydrolysis, and ultrasonication to degrade this polymer, but these processes require extreme conditions and are thus unsustainable.
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