JOURNAL OF FUNDAMENTALS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND APPLICATIONS | The use of crude oil and its derivatives to produced energy have contributed to Global warming and climate changes. Biofuels are produced by conversion of biomass to generate combustible fuels. First generation employ the traditional method to convert food-crops raw materials to generate biofuels in the form of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. First generation has so many disadvantages such as food insecurity. Second generation involves production of biofuels using non-food crops with high content of lignocellulose, residues or waste from industry, forestry and agriculture as the feedstocks. Abiotic stress is one of the disadvantages of second-generation biofuels which require enhanced technologies to live up to commercial scale. The third generation of biofuels involves the use of tiny microorganisms such as algae and bacteria. These organisms can be modified using gene editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas system to produced high quantity of biofuels with low GHG emission and low cost. To read the full article, click here.